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Chicken pox (varicella, vesiculous smallpox) is one of the most common – preventable vaccine childhood illnesses. It is spread through a drop and direct contact, its latency is two to three weeks. A typical symptom is the appearance of small red, very itchy bladders throughout the body, which in most cases can be healed without trace in a week or two.
Causes and occurrences of chickenpox
In chickenpox children, there is usually a benign illness, which heals himself and without trace during one or two weeks. Most people who are not vaccinated pass between 3 and 10 (at the latest 15) years of age, rarely occur in infants and adolescents. Those who have been chickenpox are usually protected from life for a lifetime. Years later, secondary illness can occur in the form of a short-sleeved one, due to the mild progression and very young age.
The disease is caused by varicella zoster virus (HHV-3), one of the eight known herpetic viruses that are dangerous to humans.
The spread of chicken pox
Chickenpox outbreaks usually cause massive illness in closed communities, in winter and spring. Breast-feeding babies enjoy breastfeeding immunity, and only a small percentage of adults are susceptible to the disease (most often chronic illnesses, weak immune systems and pregnant moms). A person who is not protected against chickenpox may also catch the disease from a man with a shingle by direct contact.
Symptoms of chickenpox and the course of the disease
The latency of the chicken pox is 14-21 days, so the first symptoms occur within two to three weeks after infection. The patient is infectious and very contagious from the days prior to the appearance of the blisters until the blisters have died. It is common that, despite the greatest precautionary measures, many people in the family or in a closed community get more and more of the disease.
Symptoms – mild fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, anorexia, headache and sore throat may occur during the period before the appearance of micturile blisters. In the days preceding the rash, the symptoms are not always typical, but the appearance of the itching red spots of acne is clearly indicative of chickenpox.
The red, highly itchy acne-like spots first appear on the face, abdomen and torso and then spread to the limbs as well. Swollen later alternate with water-filled bladders with a slightly retracted middle. In the next few days, new blisters will develop. Within a few days, the contents of the blisters become confusing, shriveled, followed by rotting. The symptoms of chickenpox may be accompanied by mild to moderate fever in the first week. Brownish roses in one or two weeks (if the patient has not been scratching them before) will be imprinted and fall off automatically. During this period, the disease is no longer infectious. In some cases, blisters may also affect the mouth and mucous membranes, causing loss of appetite or even pain to the chickenpox.
Treatment of chicken pox
Treatment of chicken pox is symptomatic, at the stage of bladder rupture, the patient needs bed rest or, in some cases, rheumatism. The use of dry formulations is recommended for the suppression of strong and unpleasant pruritus in the form of a powder coating.
It is advisable to cut the nails of the child very short and keep it clean, preventing any possible injuries of the rash. In some cases, antiviral treatment at the beginning of the disease may reduce the length and intensity of the chicken pox.
Possible complications of chicken pox
In children, the disease is a common complication arising from the blisters elkaparása secondary bacterial infection, impetigo (impetigo). In this case, antibiotic treatment is required.
In rare cases pneumonia or hepatitis due to the chicken pox and the immune system weakens, and in very rare cases, encephalitis and Reye’s syndrome may develop.
During the first three months of pregnancy – when the baby’s body develops – chicken pox may have a fetus-damaging effect. As the pregnancy progresses, this risk is reduced, but maternal health may still be endangered by a possible infection.
Prevention of chickenpox
The use of vaccine against chickenpox is especially recommended for the vulnerable – young pregnant women who have not undergone a disease, immune deficiency, childcare teachers and healthcare workers.